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A company that spurned talent it badly needed couldn''t thrive. The same is true for a country.

一個將自己所需的人才拒之門外的公司是無法發展壯大的,一個國家也是如此。

But that isn''t stopping the Trump administration from blithely driving foreign students into the open arms of other countries with its ill-advised immigration policies.

但這并不能阻止特朗普政府輕率地用不明智的移民政策將外國學生推向其他國家的懷抱。

For three years in a row, the number of new foreign students enrolling in American universities has fallen. In the 2015-16 academic year, 300,743 new foreign students enrolled. That number dropped to 269,383 in 2018-19, a decline of 10.4 percent as per the data of Open Doors, the Institute of International Education''s (IIE) annual report that tracks university enrollments. Nor is the situation likely to improve in the academic year currently underway given that a snapshot survey of 500 universities by the IIE this fall found declining enrollment — although full stats won''t be available until later in 2020.

美國大學的外國新生入學人數連續三年出現下降。2015至2016學年,共有300743名外國學生入讀美國大學。根據國際教育協會追蹤大學入學情況形成的年度報告Open Doors,這一數字在2018-2019年間下降到了269383人,下降了10.4%。鑒于今年秋季國際教育協會在對500所大學進行的一項快速調查中發現外國學生入學率下降,當前學年的情況也不太可能有所改善——盡管完整的統計數據要到2020年晚些時候才能出爐。



In particular, America is losing Chinese students while Australia is gaining them. One likely reason is that Trump has called them all spies (an absurd accusation given that that 9 out of 10 would prefer to stay on and work in America) and threatened to ban them from the country in a naked bid to force Beijing to succumb to his trade demands. Trump didn''t make good on that threat but, in 2018, he capped their visa stay to one year at a time rather than allowing them to stay for the maximum time allowed. This not only made Chinese students feel unwelcome in the United States but also made it more precarious for them to pursue an education here lest they lose their visas before finishing their program.

特別是,美國失去了中國學生,而澳大利亞卻得到了他們。一個可能的原因是特朗普聲稱他們都是間諜(這一荒謬的指控源于90%的中國留學生寧愿留在美國工作),并威脅要禁止他們入境,赤裸裸地迫使中國屈服于他的貿易需求。特朗普沒有兌現這一威脅,但在2018年,他將留學生的簽證單次停留期限縮短為一年,不再允許他們享受簽證規定的最長停留時間。這不僅讓中國學生覺得自己在美國不受歡迎,也讓他們在美國的求學之路變得更加坎坷:他們擔心簽證會在自己完成學業前失效。

In addition, his travel ban has of course barred foreign students from Iran and various Muslim countries.

此外,他的旅行禁令也禁止了來自伊朗和其他穆斯林國家的外國學生。

He has also proposed rules that would make it easier to brand foreign students as being "unlawfully present" and to ban them from the country for 10 years. The courts have put this rule on hold for now but the uncertainty can hardly make American universities attractive.

他還提出了一些規定,以便更容易給外國留學生安上“非法入境”的罪名,并在十年內禁止他們入境。法院暫時擱置了這一規定,但這種不確定性很難讓美國大學具有吸引力。

Trump has also doubled down on sting operations to crack down on visa fraud. Last year ICE arrested 250 foreign students, mostly from India, whom it lured into the University of Farmington, a fake university that it set up in metro Detroit. For tuition fees much lower than normal, this university handed these students transcxts to satisfy the terms of their visas and, more importantly, obtain CPT (Curricular Practical Training) status. This status lets the foreign students sign up for a paid internship off campus and offset their steep tuition costs, a tempting deal because it enables them to work for more than 20 hours and get off-campus jobs. Many foreign students quit legitimate universities to join this fake one only to get caught in ICE''s dragnet.

特朗普還加大了打擊簽證欺詐的力度。去年,美國移民海關總署逮捕了250名外國學生,其中大部分來自印度,他們被誘騙到法明頓大學(一所建在底特律市區的野雞大學)。這所大學的學費遠低于美國大學正常水平,還為這些學生提供成績單,以滿足他們的簽證條件,更重要的是,它還獲得了CPT(課程實踐培訓)資格。這種條件讓外國學生能在校外報名參加帶薪實習、抵消他們高昂的學費成本,這是一筆誘人的交易,因為他們可以工作20多個小時,并獲得校外工作。許多外國學生離開了合法的大學,入讀了這所野雞大學,結果卻被美國移民海關總署抓獲。

But it''s not just draconian enforcement tactics that are turning away foreign students. The administration''s immigration policies are also making an American education an unattractive value proposition compared to other countries.

但是,令外國學生望而卻步的不僅僅是嚴厲的執法手段。與其他國家相比,特朗普政府的移民政策也讓美國教育成為一個沒有吸引力的價值主張。



Turning away foreign students is particularly stupid — not only because we need their skills but also their tuition dollars. Over 66 percent of them, especially undergraduates, pay top dollars for their education from out-of-pocket or through outside sources, allowing universities to subsidize tuition costs for American students. Many international graduate students, meanwhile, provide teaching and research services in exchange for a tuition reprieve, especially in STEM fields, something that allows universities to offer a more cost-effective education than if they had to hire faculty for the same jobs.

拒絕外國學生非常愚蠢——不僅因為我們需要他們的技能,還因為我們需要他們繳納的學費。其中超過66%的外國學生,尤其是本科生,自掏腰包或通過外部渠道支付高額學費入讀美國大學,這使得這些大學可以為美國學生提供學費補貼。與此同時,許多國際研究生提供教學和研究服務,以換取學費的減免,尤其是在STEM領域,這比雇傭教員做同樣的工作更劃算。

Furthermore, foreign students contribute $37 billion to the American economy and create or support 450,000 jobs, according to the National Association of Foreign Student Advisers, an outfit that promotes the professional development of American college officials. Indeed, without them, the shortage of Americans in STEM fields would become even more acute because there wouldn''t be enough people to train Americans, generating a downward spiral of STEM scarcity.

此外,據全美外國學生顧問協會的數據,外國學生為美國經濟貢獻了370億美元,創造或支持了45萬個就業崗位。事實上,如果沒有他們,美國人在STEM領域的人才短缺將變得更加嚴重,因為沒有足夠的人來培訓美國人,從而造成STEM人才短缺的惡性循環。

But the most vital contributions of international students are intangible. Had it not been for them, America may not have spearheaded the IT revolution. That''s because 57 percent of Silicon Valley''s STEM workers were born outside the country and many of them came to the United States as students and stayed on. Many iconic IT companies such as Microsoft and Google are currently being headed by foreigners who came to America as graduate students.

但是國際學生最重要的貢獻是無形的。如果沒有他們,美國可能就不會成為IT革命的先鋒。這是因為硅谷57%的STEM工人出生在國外,他們中的許多人是作為學生來到美國并留在美國的。許多標志性的IT公司,如微軟和谷歌,目前都是由作為研究生來到美國的外國人領導的。

Instead of draining the swamp, Trump is draining talent from America that other countries are eagerly sucking up. This is a formula for making them great, not America.

特朗普并沒有排干華盛頓這片沼澤的水,相反,他在趕走美國的人才,而其他國家正在急切地吸收著這些人才。這是在讓他們變得偉大,而不是讓美國變得偉大。