Despite its potent display of combat capability during the Balakot standoff, the PAF requires additional platforms to balance against a much larger Indian Air Force.

盡管巴空軍在巴拉科特對峙中展示了強大的作戰能力,但它需要更多的作戰平臺來對抗規模大得多的印度空軍。

Amidst sustained tensions between the two nuclear armed South Asian neighbors, the Indian Air Force is scheduled to receive the first batch of four state-of-the-art Rafale fighter jets by the end of July 2020. The 7.87 billion euro Rafale deal between France and New Delhi for a total order of 36 jets was finally inked in September 2016, after much controversy and delay. According to the delivery schedule, the Indian Air Force shall receive all jets by May 2022. Armed with Meteor missiles and a highly sophisticated electronic warfare suite, New Delhi’s Rafale acquisition threatens to tilt the balance of power in South Asia in the IAF’s favor.

在這兩個擁有核武器的南亞鄰國持續緊張的局勢下,印度空軍計劃在2020年7月底前接收首批4架最先進的陣風戰斗機。2016年9月,法國和印度簽署了總額為78.7億歐元的陣風戰機合同,總共購買36架戰機。根據交付計劃,印度空軍將在2022年5月前獲得所有戰機。陣風戰機裝備有流星導彈和高度精密的電子戰裝備,新德里的陣風采購,可能會使南亞的軍力平衡向有利于印度的方向傾斜。

The Pakistan Air Force (PAF) has been following the Indian Air Force’s modernization program with keen interest, but budget constraints mean that Islamabad’s chances of acquiring a fighter jet of similar capability are slim. Instead, Pakistan seems to be focusing on the latest variant of its indigenous JF-17 Thunder multi-role fighter.

巴基斯坦空軍一直密切關注印度空軍的現代化計劃,但預算限制意味著伊斯蘭堡獲得類似能力的戰斗機的機會渺茫。相反,巴基斯坦似乎專注于國產JF-17雷電多用途戰斗機的最新改型。




In the event of an all-out conventional war, the PAF’s limited frontline air assets are at risk of getting overstretched. More worryingly for Islamabad, the Indian Navy operates a sizeable independent air arm, which can be utilized in a conflict scenario to target Pakistan’s coastal industrial hub of Karachi. The much smaller Pakistan Navy does not operate fighter jets, instead relying on the PAF for aerial maritime strike operations.

一旦爆發全面的常規戰爭,巴空軍有限的前線空中力量將面臨超負荷的危險。對伊斯蘭堡來說,更令人擔憂的是,印度海軍擁有一支相當大的獨立空軍,可以在發生沖突的情況下用來打擊位于卡拉奇的巴基斯坦沿海工業中心。而規模小得多的巴基斯坦海軍并不使用戰斗機,而是依賴巴基斯坦空軍進行空中海上打擊行動。




In addition to their low maintenance and impressive safety record, the Spey engine’s utility lies in the fact that it is designed specifically for sustained low altitude flight below the radar horizon of enemy naval vessels. Despite significant advances in jet engine development since the Cold War, the majority of engines today are designed for mid-to-high altitude flight. Flying at low altitude to avoid radar detection for longer periods thus decreases much of the engines’ range.

除了低維護和令人印象深刻的安全記錄,斯貝發動機的實用性在于它是專門為在低于敵方海軍艦艇的雷達視野空域進行持續低空飛行而設計的。盡管自冷戰以來噴氣發動機的發展取得了重大進步,但目前大多數發動機都是為中高空飛行設計的。為了避免雷達偵測而進行較長時間的低空飛行,會大大減少發動機的航程。

The JH-7 also complements the Pakistan Navy’s combat doctrine, which is based on the anti-access/area denial (A2/AD) blueprint. The PN’s three Khalid-class submarines form the linchpin of their A2/AD strategy, with the wartime obxtive of preventing an attempted blockade of the vital Karachi port by the Indian Navy. Acquisition of the JH -7 by Pakistan would provide Islamabad with lethal capability to considerably limit the maneuvering capacity of the Indian Navy in the proximity of Karachi port.

JH-7還補充了巴基斯坦海軍的作戰理論,該理論基于反進入/區域封鎖(A2/AD)的藍圖。巴海軍的三艘哈利德級潛艇構是其A2/AD戰略的關鍵,其戰時目標是防止印度海軍企圖封鎖重要的卡拉奇港口。巴基斯坦購買JH-7將為伊斯蘭堡提供致命能力,大大限制印度海軍在卡拉奇港口附近的機動能力。

Also, the JH-7, with its longer combat range, heavy payload capacity, and ability to fly under enemy radar cover provides Islamabad with an offensive capacity targeted at India’s protracted western coastline. Hence, acquisition of the JH-7 by Pakistan serves both defensive and offensive purposes. The improved JH-7A variant currently in service with the PLA Air Force is capable to carry over seven tonnes of armament, including four KD-88/YJ-83 anti-ship missiles.

此外,JH-7具有較長的作戰距離、重型有效載荷能力和在敵人雷達覆蓋區域飛行的能力,為伊斯蘭堡提供針對印度漫長的西部海岸線的進攻能力。因此,巴基斯坦獲得JH-7既可以滿足防御目的,也可以滿足進攻目的。目前在PLA空軍服役的改進型JH-7A能夠攜帶超過7噸的武器,包括四枚KD-88/YJ-83反艦導彈。

The capability to carry long range anti-ship missiles, which can be launched more than 100 miles away from their targets, means that the JH-7 is able to utilize an asymmetric “hit and run” strategy before enemy air defenses can effectively engage with it. This doctrine was perhaps most aptly demonstrated by the Argentine Air Force during the 1982 Falklands War, as French Super Etendard strike aircraft armed with Exocet missiles sank two British warships.

此外,JH-7具有較長的作戰距離、重型有效載荷能力和在敵人雷達覆蓋區域飛行的能力,為伊斯蘭堡提供針對印度漫長的西部海岸線的進攻能力。因此,巴基斯坦獲得JH-7既可以滿足防御目的,也可以滿足進攻目的。目前在PLA空軍服役的改進型JH-7A能夠攜帶超過7噸的武器,包括四枚KD-88/YJ-83反艦導彈。

One alternative to the JH-7 for Pakistan is its existing arsenal of cruise missiles, but this option has its own pitfalls. First, cruise missiles follow a predictable trajectory and are vulnerable to interception by India’s air defense network and fighter aircraft such as the Sukhoi 30 MKI. Second, the use of cruise missiles, even in an all-out conflict, presents a significant leap in terms of escalation. As such, a cruise missile attack by either New Delhi or Islamabad can lead to an eventual nuclear exchange.

對于巴基斯坦來說,JH-7的另一種選擇是其現有庫存的巡航導彈,但這種選擇也有其缺陷。首先,巡航導彈的飛行軌跡可以預測,很容易被印度防空網絡和蘇-30mki等戰斗機攔截。其次,巡航導彈的使用,即使是在全面沖突中,也是戰爭升級方面的一個重大飛躍。因此,新德里或伊斯蘭堡的巡航導彈襲擊可能導致最終的核戰爭。

Having extensive prior experience in operating and maintaining Chinese-built aircraft such as the H-5, J-6, and F-7, acquisition of the JH-7 by Pakistan and its effective combat use for the heavy strike role presents an ideal “stop-gap” solution for the PAF until sufficient numbers of the JF-17 Block 3 are inducted. The Chinese also appear eager to sell much of their JH-7 fleet, showcasing the fighter bomber for sale at air shows such as the China International Aviation and Aerospace Exhibition. As prospects of inducting foreign jets from Western countries appear bleak, the JH-7 appears to be the PAF’s only viable option to assert itself in a volatile region.

巴基斯坦空軍對中國飛機(如H-5, J-6, 和F-7)有著豐富的操作和維護經驗,在引入足夠數量的JF-17 Block 3之前,獲得JH-7并有效利用其重型打擊作用,對巴基斯坦而言是一種理想的“權宜之計”的解決方案。中國似乎也急于出售大部分JH-7機隊,在中國國際航空航天博覽會等航空展上展示這種待售的戰斗機轟炸機。由于引進西方國家飛機的前景黯淡,JH-7似乎是巴基斯坦空軍在這個動蕩地區鞏固自身唯一可行的選擇。